Part-I, Marks-100


Hides and Skins:

Histological structure and Chemical Composition, Marketing channel of hides and skins and constraints at different stages. Supply Position in Bangladesh, Curing of Hides and Skins, evaluation of different methods of curing, ante mortem, post mortem and industrial defects of Hides and Skins.


Wet processing:

Soaking, liming, deliming, bating, degreasing, tanning, neutralization, re-tanning, dyeing, fat-liquoring.


Chrome Tanning:

Historical development, theories of Chrome tanning, Factors affecting Chrome tanning, chrome tanning and its impact on environment, recycling, reduce and reuse of chrome liqours, defects of chrome tanning, and their remedies, control in chrome tanning.


Other tanning Operation:

Aluminum and titanium tanning, Vegetable tanning, Synthetic Tanning, Aldehyde Tanning, Oil-tanning, Resin and Polymeric tanning.



Neutralizing agents, degree of neutralization and their impact on dying, fat-liquoring and finish leather.



History and development of dyes, Nomenclature and classification of dyes, structure of natural and synthetic dyes, Azo dyes: Preparation, azo coupling and diazotization, classification, stereoisomerism and tautomerism of azo dyes, reaction mechanism between azo dyes and protein fibre, banned a mines in azo dyes, commercial azo dyes, and their application. Metal complex dyes- their chemistry mechanism, toxicity and application. Reactive dye-their chemistry and application, selection of leather dyes, leather dyes in colour index. LEATHER TECHNOLOGY BCS SYLLABUS


Fat liquoring:

Objective, Selection of Fat liquors and oils, influencing factors of the fat liquoring operation, Quality control during fat-liquor.


Mechanical Operations:

Fleshing, Samming, Setting out, Splitting, Shaving, Vacuum drying and Drumming.


Leather Drying:

Introduction, types of leather drying, theory of leather drying, principles of heat and mass transfer, equilibrium moisture content, rate of drying, constant drying and falling rate periods, factors affecting the drying of leather, defects of leather drying.


Environmental Impact and Pollution Control:

Pollution results during Pre-tanning, Tanning and Post-tanning stage, nature of effluent and solid wastes, treatment of effluent, central effluent treatment plan(CETP), chrome recovery plant. ISO 14000 and its application for leather industry.


Health Hazards and Safety:

Safety measurements during leather productions, chemicals handling, Banned amines and their effect of health. Pentachlorophenol (PCP), Chromium (vi), and formaldehyde hazards, social and international trade barrier due to health and safety requirements.



Part-II, Marks-100


Leather Finishing:

Introduction, history of finishing, aim and purpose, Classification of Leather Finishing, requirements of Leather finishes, dimensions of the finish as a protecting layer and characteristics of the finish film, formulation of leather finishes and different layers in finish coat.


Mechanical Operation for Finishing:

Buffing, snuffing, de-dusting, flesh coating, staining/colour impression, ironing, glazing, plating selection.


Theory of Leather Finishing:

Basic concept of coating, ground coating, season coating, top coating, preparation of leather surface for finishing, coating, of leather , theory of adhesion, theory and mechanism of film formation, gloss and gloss retention, plasticization of finish film, techniques of leather coating, ironing and embossing during coating, evaluation and control of leather finishing.


Leather Finishing Materials:

Introduction, aqueous and non-aqueous finishing materials, different types of finishing materials-protein, shellac, resin binder, liquid dyestuffs, pigment, plasticizer, preservatives, wetting agents, dispersing agents, defoamers, plate release agents, penetrators, optical brighteners, polishing agents, flow improver, cross-linking agents and hardeners, leveling agents, filling agents, thickeners, matting agents, fluorescent agents, crackle lacquers, silicones, modifiers, slip and fixing agents.



Definition, objects of pigmentation, properties of pigments classification, organic and inorganic pigments, different forms of pigments power and pastes. Evaluation and control of their brilliance, opacity, particle size, resistance to solvent heat and light and colour matching, application of colour circle for colour matching, pigment dyeing-their advantages and limitation.


Polymeric materials and their chemistry and application:

Chemistry and application of acrylics, polyurethane and Cellulose derivatives. Solvents and Diluents.


Formulation of Leather Finishes:

Plain finishes, glazing finish, shellac finish, wax finish, pigment finishes, pigment finish of a simple type, side leather finish for corrected leather, finish for glazes lining leather, suede leather finishes, patent and wet look leather.


Physical Tests:

Physical tests essential for leather, footwear and leather products manufacture, principles of different physical tests such as tensile strength, present elongation at break, bursting strength, tearing strength, flexing endurance test, vamp flexing, water vapor permeability test, air permeability of leather, dynamic water profanes test, apparent and real densities, scuffing and abrasive resistance, absorption of water, water penetration, resistance of cracking of grain and crack index, perspiration resistance of leather, leather softness, fogging tendency of leather.


Standards for Leather Testing:

International standards, national standards, testing of different leather chemicals, computer use for quality control in the leather industries, selection of tests, description of different test methods, quality requirement of upper leather, garment leathers, furniture leather, lining and book-binding leather.


Quality control for different stages of leather:

Sorting and selection of hides and skins, unit operation of leather processing, their objects and principles, techniques of controlling of chemical processes such as web-processing, tanning, neutralization, dyeing and finishing, control of mechanical operation.